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Many English settled then in North America for religious or economic reasons. Charles surrendered to the Scottish army at Newark.

He was eventually handed over to the English Parliament in early This shocked the rest of Europe. The king argued to the end that only God could judge him.

The trial and execution were a precursor of sorts to the beheading of Louis XVI years later. Cromwell was given the title Lord Protector in , making him 'king in all but name' to his critics.

After he died in , his son Richard Cromwell succeeded him in the office but he was forced to abdicate within a year.

For a while it seemed as if a new civil war would begin as the New Model Army split into factions. Troops stationed in Scotland under the command of George Monck eventually marched on London to restore order.

According to Derek Hirst , outside of politics and religion, the s and s saw a revived economy characterized by growth in manufacturing, the elaboration of financial and credit instruments, and the commercialization of communication.

The gentry found time for leisure activities, such as horse racing and bowling. In the high culture important innovations included the development of a mass market for music, increased scientific research, and an expansion of publishing.

All the trends were discussed in depth at the newly established coffee houses. However, the power of the crown was less than before the Civil War.

By the 18th century England rivaled the Netherlands as one of the freest countries in Europe. In , London was swept by the plague , and in by the Great Fire for 5 days which destroyed about 15, buildings.

In , the Exclusion crisis consisted of attempts to prevent accession of James, heir to Charles II, because he was Catholic. In November , William invaded England and succeeded in being crowned.

James tried to retake the throne in the Williamite War , but was defeated at the Battle of the Boyne in In December , one of the most important constitutional documents in English history, the Bill of Rights , was passed.

For example, the Sovereign could not suspend laws passed by Parliament, levy taxes without parliamentary consent, infringe the right to petition, raise a standing army during peacetime without parliamentary consent, deny the right to bear arms to Protestant subjects, unduly interfere with parliamentary elections, punish members of either House of Parliament for anything said during debates, require excessive bail or inflict cruel and unusual punishments.

In parts of Scotland and Ireland, Catholics loyal to James remained determined to see him restored to the throne, and staged a series of bloody uprisings.

As a result, any failure to pledge loyalty to the victorious King William was severely dealt with. The most infamous example of this policy was the Massacre of Glencoe in The Acts of Union between the Kingdom of England and the Kingdom of Scotland were a pair of Parliamentary Acts passed by both parliaments in , which dissolved them in order to form a Kingdom of Great Britain governed by a unified Parliament of Great Britain according to the Treaty of Union.

Although described as a Union of Crowns, until there were in fact two separate Crowns resting on the same head. There had been three attempts in , , and to unite the two countries by Acts of Parliament, but it was not until the early 18th century that the idea had the will of both political establishments behind them, albeit for rather different reasons.

The Acts took effect on 1 May On the Union, historian Simon Schama said "What began as a hostile merger, would end in a full partnership in the most powerful going concern in the world In ended the reign of Queen Anne , the last monarch of the House of Stuart.

Several Planned French Invasions were attempted, also with the intention of placing the Stuarts on the throne. The Act of Union of formally assimilated Ireland within the British political process and from 1 January created a new state called the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland , which united the Kingdom of Great Britain with the Kingdom of Ireland to form a single political entity.

The English capital of London was adopted as the capital of the Union. Following the formation of the United Kingdom, the history of England is no longer the history of a sovereign nation, but rather the history of one of the countries of the United Kingdom.

In the late 18th century and early 19th centuries, technological advances and mechanization resulted in the Industrial Revolution which transformed a largely agrarian society and caused considerable social upheaval.

Economies of scale and increased output per worker allowed steam-based factories to undercut production of traditional cottage industries.

Much of the agricultural workforce was uprooted from the countryside and moved into large urban centres of production.

The consequent overcrowding into areas with little supporting infrastructure saw dramatic increases in mortality, crime, and social deprivation.

Many Sunday schools for pre-working age children 5 or 6 had funeral clubs to pay for each other's funeral arrangements.

The process of industrialization threatened many livelihoods, which prompted some to sabotage factories. These saboteurs were known as " Luddites ".

The Local Government Act was the first systematic attempt to impose a standardised system of local government in England.

The system was based on the existing counties today known as the historic counties , since the major boundary changes of Later, the Local Government Act created a second tier of local government.

All administrative counties and county boroughs were divided into either rural or urban districts, allowing more localised administration.

During the s, the need for local administration greatly increased, prompting piecemeal adjustments. The sanitary districts and parish councils had legal status, but were not part of the mechanism of government.

They were run by volunteers; often no-one could be held responsible for the failure to undertake the required duties. Furthermore, the increased "county business" could not be handled by the Quarter Sessions , nor was this appropriate.

Finally, there was a desire to see local administration performed by elected officials, as in the reformed municipal boroughs.

By , these shortcomings were clear, and the Local Government Act was the first systematic attempt to create a standardised system of local government in England.

The system was based on the existing counties now known as the historic counties , since the major boundary changes of The counties themselves had had some boundary changes in the preceding 50 years, mainly to remove enclaves and exclaves.

These statutory counties were to be used for non-administrative functions: " sheriff , lieutenant , custos rotulorum , justices, militia, coroner, or other".

With the advent of elected councils, the offices of lord lieutenant and sheriff became largely ceremonial.

The statutory counties formed the basis for the so-called 'administrative counties'. However, it was felt that large cities and primarily rural areas in the same county could not be well administered by the same body.

Thus 59 "counties in themselves", or 'county boroughs', were created to administer the urban centres of England. These were part of the statutory counties, but not part of the administrative counties.

In , the Local Government Act created a second tier of local government. Henceforth, all administrative counties and county boroughs would be divided into either rural or urban districts, allowing more localised administration.

The municipal boroughs reformed after were brought into this system as special cases of urban districts.

The urban and rural districts were based on, and incorporated the sanitary districts which created in with adjustments, so that districts did not overlap two counties.

The Act also provided for the establishment of civil parishes. However, the civil parishes were not a complete third-tier of local government.

Instead, they were 'community councils' for smaller, rural settlements, which did not have a local government district to themselves. Where urban parish councils had previously existed, they were absorbed into the new urban districts.

A prolonged agricultural depression in Britain at the end of the 19th century, together with the introduction in the 20th century of increasingly heavy levels of taxation on inherited wealth, put an end to agricultural land as the primary source of wealth for the upper classes.

Many estates were sold or broken up, and this trend was accelerated by the introduction of protection for agricultural tenancies, encouraging outright sales, from the midth century.

There is a movement in England to create a devolved English Parliament. This issue is referred to as the West Lothian question.

In it recommended a system of single-tier unitary authorities for the whole of England, apart from three metropolitan areas of Merseyside , Selnec Greater Manchester and West Midlands Birmingham and the Black Country , which were to have both a metropolitan council and district councils.

This report was accepted by the Labour Party government of the time despite considerable opposition, but the Conservative Party won the June general election , and on a manifesto that committed them to a two-tier structure.

The reforms arising from the Local Government Act of resulted in the most uniform and simplified system of local government which has been used in England.

They effectively wiped away everything that had gone before, and built an administrative system from scratch. All previous administrative districts — statutory counties, administrative counties, county boroughs, municipal boroughs, counties corporate, civil parishes — were abolished.

The aim of the act was to establish a uniform two tier system across the country. Onto the blank canvas, new counties were created to cover the entire country; many of these were obviously based on the historic counties , but there were some major changes, especially in the north.

This uniform two-tier system lasted only 12 years. In , the metropolitan county councils and Greater London were abolished. This restored autonomy in effect the old county borough status to the metropolitan and London boroughs.

The Local Government Act established a commission Local Government Commission for England to examine the issues, and make recommendations on where unitary authorities should be established.

It was considered too expensive to make the system entirely unitary, and also there would doubtlessly be cases where the two-tier system functioned well.

The commission recommended that many counties be moved to completely unitary systems; that some cities become unitary authorities, but that the remainder of their parent counties remain two-tier; and that in some counties the status quo should remain.

The rate-capping rebellion was a campaign within English local councils in which aimed to force the Conservative government of Margaret Thatcher to withdraw powers to restrict the spending of councils.

The campaign's tactic was that councils whose budgets were restricted would refuse to set any budget at all for the financial year —86, requiring the Government to intervene directly in providing local services, or to concede.

However, all 15 councils which initially refused to set a rate eventually did so, and the campaign failed to change Government policy.

Powers to restrict council budgets have remained in place ever since. In , the Lieutenancies Act was passed. This firmly separated all local authority areas whether unitary or two-tier , from the geographical concept of a county as high level spatial unit.

The lieutenancies it established became known as ceremonial counties , since they were no longer administrative divisions. The counties represent a compromise between the historic counties and the counties established in While the Labour government devolved power to Wales , Scotland and Northern Ireland , it refused to create a devolved Assembly or parliament for England , planning instead to introduce eight regional assemblies around England to devolve power to the regions.

In the event, only a London Assembly and directly elected Mayor was established. Rejection in a referendum of a proposed North-East Assembly in effectively scrapped those plans.

A pre-condition of having a regional assembly was for the whole area to move to unitary authority status. Since the general election the government has floated the idea of voluntary mergers of local councils, avoiding a costly reorganisation but achieving desired reform.

For instance, the guiding principles of the government's "New Localism" demand levels of efficiency not present in the current over-duplicated two-tier structure.

In , new changes to local government were made whereby a number of new unitary authorities were created in areas which previously had a 'two-tier' system of counties and districts.

In five shire counties the functions of the county and district councils were combined into a single authority; and in two counties the powers of the county council were absorbed into a significantly reduced number of districts.

The abolition of regional development agencies and the creation of Local enterprise partnerships were announced as part of the June United Kingdom budget.

On 7 September , details were released of 56 proposals for local enterprise partnerships that had been received.

Note: Be sure to check the box in the upper right corner of this entry, providing a list of all notable eras within the history of England.

Line 9, Celts and Britons ["known by? Celts, page 6, Britons, page Recommend entire book is read. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

Historical development of England. For other uses, see History of England disambiguation. For the Jon English album, see English History album.

Part of a series on the. Social history of England History of education in England History of the economy of England History of the politics of England English overseas possessions History of the English language.

By county. By city or town. Main article: Prehistoric Britain. Main article: Genetic history of the British Isles.

Main article: Roman Britain. Main article: Sub-Roman Britain. Further information: Anglo-Saxon settlement of Britain.

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Main article: Magna Carta. Main article: Black Death in England. Armorial of Plantagenet. Main article: Tudor period.

Main article: Elizabethan era. Main article: 17th century England. Further information: English overseas possessions. Further information: English Civil War.

Main article: History of the United Kingdom. Main article: Economic history of Britain. Further information: History of local government in England.

Main articles: Social history of the United Kingdom —present and Political history of the United Kingdom —present.

List of British monarchs , British monarchs' family tree Timeline of English history Timeline of British diplomatic history Historical and alternative regions of England.

History of local government in England structural changes to local government in England Regions of England Subdivisions of England Unitary authorities of England.

The Guardian. Retrieved 29 January ; Wade, Nicholas 7 July The New York Times. Retrieved 22 December ; "Earliest footprints outside Africa discovered in Norfolk".

BBC News. Retrieved 7 February Bibcode : Natur. University of Oxford. Archived from the original on 2 July Retrieved 18 November To all appearances, the settlement was carried out by small, agriculture-oriented kinship groups.

This process corresponds more closely to a classic settler model. The absence of early evidence of a socially demarcated elite underscores the supposition that such an elite did not play a substantial role.

Rich burials such as are well known from Denmark have no counterparts in England until the 6th century. At best, the elite-dominance model might apply in the peripheral areas of the settlement territory, where an immigration predominantly comprised of men and the existence of hybrid cultural forms might support it.

In this area at least, and possibly more widely in eastern Britain, large tracts of land appear to have been deserted in the late fourth century, possibly including whole "small towns" and villages.

This does not seem to have been a localized change in settlement location, size or character but genuine desertion The areas where we have most indications of an intrusive Germanic culture are precisely those where we have most evidence of late fourth-century abandonment.

Regional variation may well provide the key to resolution, with something more akin to mass migration in the southeast, gradually spreading into elite dominance in the north and west.

I accord with this compromise between the debates insofar as large-scale migration seems highly likely for at least East Anglia and parts of Lincolnshire.

At the same time, however, it is dubious that these people migrated as a coherent Anglian group. Brenda J. Baker and Takeyuki Tsuda, pp. This forms the basis for the "Anglian" zone of later Anglo-Saxon England.

The population may indeed have included a substantial number of people with Germanic ancestry as well as an as yet unspecifiable proportion of the native British population There was not one "Anglo-Saxon migration" that had the same impact in all of England I believe that the linguistic evidence favors the traditional view, at least for the south-east and for the southern North Sea coastal lands, i.

East Anglia. It appears that the immigrants took over the institutions of the local population here. The Heroic Age.

The Vikings. Major, Early wars of Wessex Hildreth Press, The English Historical Review. Brian Igoe Alan Macfarlane The Conquest of the Ocean.

In Chisholm, Hugh ed. Cambridge University Press. Perspectives on 17th Century West European History. New York: McNash. Retrieved 7 October A History of Britain.

Episode BBC One. The National Archives. Retrieved 16 July Budget PDF. HM Treasury. Archived from the original PDF on 15 October Department of Communities and Local Government.

News Distribution Service. Archived from the original on 13 September Retrieved 30 April Local Government Chronicle. Retrieved 28 October A social history of England — Routledge, A new history of England The History Press, Broadberry, Stephen et al.

Williamson online Clapp, Brian William. A History of England 2 vol. Pearson Higher Ed, Ensor, R. England, — , comprehensive survey.

The Age of Reform: — comprehensive survey online. Jacobs, Joseph In Singer, Isidore ; et al. The Jewish Encyclopedia. Hillaby, Joe Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.

Cannon, John. The Oxford Companion to British History 2nd ed. Furber, Elizabeth Chapin, ed. English historical documents London: Methuen; 12 vol to ; reprinted ; the most comprehensive collection on political, constitutional, economic and social topics Douglas, David Charles.

English historical documents, — Vol. English historical documents. Psychology Press, , Reprint Rothwell, Harry, ed.

English Historical Documents, Vol. Douglas Price, eds. English Historical Documents, — Vol. Routledge, , reprint Aspinall, Arthur.

Psychology Press, , reprint Handcock, William D. Psychology Press, , reprint Douglas, D. English historical documents, — Methuen Beard, Charles, ed.

An introduction to the English historians excerpts Cheyney, Edward P. Educational Charters and Documents to pp; online over pp.

Marcham, eds. Sources of English Constitutional History 2nd ed. Select charters and other illustrations of English constitutional history from the earliest times to the reign of Edward the First Clarendon Press, online Weiner, Joel H.

Wiener, Joel H. Great Britain: the lion at home; a documentary history of domestic policy, — 4 vol , pp. Dazu zählt zum Beispiel auch die Frage nach der religiösen oder politischen Überzeugung.

Bis eine engere Freundschaft aufgebaut werden konnte, sollten Studenten mit neuen Studienkollegen daher besser über unverfängliche Themen wie das Wetter oder anstehende Events an der Hochschule sprechen.

Falls die Verspätung länger als fünf Minuten dauert, sollte eine Entschuldigung bereits vorab so schnell wie möglich und unter Angabe der neuen Ankunftszeit erfolgen.

Im Durchschnitt kommen an jeder Uni Studenten aus mindestens 20 verschiedenen Ländern zusammen.

In Diskussionen oder bei der Gruppenarbeit profitieren die internationalen Studenten von den vielen verschiedenen Sichtweisen.

Besonders Teamsportarten werden in vielen Clubs und Societies als Teil des Campuslebens an britischen Hochschulen angeboten. Beim Spielen oder Gucken können sogar die sonst eher zurückhaltenden Briten sehr emotional werden.

Auf einen fairen Umgang mit anderen Sportlern sowie auf die Entscheidung des Schiedsrichters wird in der Regel viel Wert gelegt. Das Vereinigte Königreich ist in den meisten Regionen eine dicht bevölkerte Nation.

Aus diesem Grund gibt es bestimmte Verhaltensregeln zu beachten. In der Öffentlichkeit sind viele Briten meist sehr reserviert und zurückhaltend.

Dieses Verhalten gilt auch privat. Aufdringliche oder zu neugierige Fragen werden hier als unangemessen betrachtet und die Privatsphäre im eigenen Haus oder Garten sollte respektiert werden.

Als Student sollte man daher unbedingt jede Möglichkeit wahrnehmen, um an organisierten sozialen Events des Campuslebens in den Pubs, der Unterkunft und Clubs der Students' Union wahrnehmen.

Leipzig: in aedibus B. In Nobbe, Carolus Fridericus Augustus ed. Claudii Ptolemaei Geographia. Leipzig: sumptibus et typis Caroli Tauchnitii.

Ireland and the classical world. Austin, Texas: University of Texas Press. BBC News — via www. London: Office for National Statistics.

Retrieved 27 May The name is also often used loosely to refer to the United Kingdom. Great Britain is the name of the island that comprises England, Scotland, and Wales, although the term is also used loosely to refer to the United Kingdom.

The United Kingdom is a political unit that includes these countries and Northern Ireland. The British Isles is a geographical term that refers to the United Kingdom, Ireland, and surrounding smaller islands such as the Hebrides and the Channel Islands.

Great Britain comprises England, Scotland and Wales. The name is broadly synonymous with Great Britain, but the longer form is more usual for the political unit.

August Archived from the original PDF on 13 March Archived from the original PDF on 22 March Archived from the original on 15 November Retrieved 11 October Bareboat Charter ship Registration.

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Schottland im Norden hat Gebirge , genauso wie Wales. England hingegen kennt nur Hügelketten. Nur noch etwa ein Zehntel der Landesfläche ist Wald.

Eine berühmte Urlaubsregion am Meer ist Cornwall im Süden. Sie besiedelten Britannien, bevor es im Jahr 43 vor Christus von den Römern erobert wurde.

Das alte England wurde aber auch teilweise von anderen Reichen erobert. Er stammt aus dem Mittelalter und zeigt, wie die Normannen im Jahr England erobert haben.

Das war das letzte Mal, dass Feinde das Land besetzt haben. Dazu gehörten Indien , Australien , Kanada und viele weitere Länder.

Um das Jahr wurde ein Viertel der Erde von London aus beherrscht. Das ist jetzt etwa Jahre her.

Damals aber begannen die Kolonien schon, unabhängig zu werden. Etwa um hatten die Briten ihr Weltreich verloren. Seitdem interessieren sie sich wieder mehr für den Rest von Europa.

In England leben mehr als vier Fünftel aller Briten. In allen Landesteilen spricht man Englisch.

Jedoch haben die anderen Landesteile noch von früher alte, keltische Sprachen, die von manchen Menschen gesprochen werden.

Meist kommen sie aus den früheren Kolonien aus Asien , Afrika und der Karibik. Sie war so ähnlich wie die katholische Kirche , nur, dass sie keinen Papst hat.

Heute noch sind fast die Hälfte der Briten Anglikaner. Viele weitere Briten sind katholisch. Für viele Menschen ist die Queen sehr wichtig, die Königin.

Herausragend war zum Beispiel die Queen Victoria. Sie kam im Jahr zur Welt. Victoria hatte Vorfahren aus Deutschland und war auch Kaiserin von Indien.

Heute ist es Elisabeth die Zweite , die seit über sechzig Jahren Königin ist. Die englische Königin ist sicherlich die bekannteste Königin der Welt.

Der englische Name lautet Queen, sprich Kwien. On the whole, burials largely disappear across England, and the dead were disposed of in a way which is archaeologically invisible: excarnation is a widely cited possibility.

Hillforts were known since the Late Bronze Age, but a huge number were constructed during — BC, particularly in the South, while after about BC new forts were rarely built and many ceased to be regularly inhabited, while a few forts become more and more intensively occupied, suggesting a degree of regional centralisation.

Around this time the earliest mentions of Britain appear in the annals of history. The first historical mention of the region is from the Massaliote Periplus , a sailing manual for merchants thought to date to the 6th century BC, and Pytheas of Massilia wrote of his voyage of discovery to the island around BC.

Both of these texts are now lost; although quoted by later writers, not enough survives to inform the archaeological interpretation to any significant degree.

Contact with the continent was less than in the Bronze Age but still significant. Goods continued to move to England, with a possible hiatus around to BC.

There were a few armed invasions of hordes of migrating Celts. There are two known invasions. Around BC, a group from the Gaulish Parisii tribe apparently took over East Yorkshire, establishing the highly distinctive Arras culture.

And from around — BC, groups of Belgae began to control significant parts of the South. These invasions constituted movements of a few people who established themselves as a warrior elite atop existing native systems, rather than replacing them.

The Belgic invasion was much larger than the Parisian settlement, but the continuity of pottery style shows that the native population remained in place.

Yet, it was accompanied by significant socio-economic change. Proto-urban, or even urban settlements, known as oppida , begin to eclipse the old hillforts, and an elite whose position is based on battle prowess and the ability to manipulate resources re-appears much more distinctly.

In 55 and 54 BC, Julius Caesar , as part of his campaigns in Gaul , invaded Britain and claimed to have scored a number of victories, but he never penetrated further than Hertfordshire and could not establish a province.

However, his invasions mark a turning-point in British history. Control of trade, the flow of resources and prestige goods, became ever more important to the elites of Southern Britain; Rome steadily became the biggest player in all their dealings, as the provider of great wealth and patronage.

A full-scale invasion and annexation was inevitable, in retrospect. Recent genetic studies have suggested that Britain's Neolithic population was largely replaced by a population from North Continental Europe characterised by the Bell Beaker culture around BC, associated with the Yamnaya people from the Pontic-Caspian Steppe.

This population lacked genetic affinity to other Bell Beaker populations, such as the Iberian Bell Beakers, but appeared to be an offshoot of the Corded Ware single grave people.

Genetic testing has also been used to find evidence of large scale immigration of Germanic peoples into England.

Weale et al. This was based on the similarity of the DNA collected from small English towns to that found in Friesland.

North German and Danish genetic frequencies were indistinguishable, thus precluding any ability to distinguish between the genetic influence of the Anglo-Saxon source populations and the later, and better documented, influx of Danish Vikings.

In response to arguments, such as those of Stephen Oppenheimer [19] and Bryan Sykes , that the similarity between English and continental Germanic DNA could have originated from earlier prehistoric migrations, researchers have begun to use data collected from ancient burials to ascertain the level of Anglo-Saxon contribution to the modern English gene pool.

Two studies published in , based on data collected from skeletons found in Iron Age, Roman and Anglo-Saxon era graves in Cambridgeshire and Yorkshire, concluded that the ancestry of the modern English population contains large contributions from both Anglo-Saxon migrants and Romano-British natives.

After Caesar's expeditions, the Romans began a serious and sustained attempt to conquer Britain in 43 AD, at the behest of Emperor Claudius.

They landed in Kent with four legions and defeated two armies led by the kings of the Catuvellauni tribe, Caratacus and Togodumnus , in battles at the Medway and the Thames.

Togodumnus was killed, and Caratacus fled to Wales. The Roman force, led by Aulus Plautius , waited for Claudius to come and lead the final march on the Catuvellauni capital at Camulodunum modern Colchester , before he returned to Rome for his triumph.

The Catuvellauni held sway over most of the southeastern corner of England; eleven local rulers surrendered, a number of client kingdoms were established, and the rest became a Roman province with Camulodunum as its capital.

By 54 AD the border had been pushed back to the Severn and the Trent, and campaigns were underway to subjugate Northern England and Wales.

But in 60 AD, under the leadership of the warrior-queen Boudicca , the tribes rebelled against the Romans. At first, the rebels had great success.

Albans respectively to the ground. There is some archaeological evidence that the same happened at Winchester. The Second Legion Augusta , stationed at Exeter , refused to move for fear of revolt among the locals.

Londinium governor Suetonius Paulinus evacuated the city before the rebels sacked and burned it; the fire was so hot that a ten-inch layer of melted red clay remains 15 feet below London's streets.

Paulinus gathered what was left of the Roman army. In the decisive battle , 10, Romans faced nearly , warriors somewhere along the line of Watling Street , at the end of which Boudicca was utterly defeated.

It was said that 80, rebels were killed, but only Romans. Over the next 20 years, the borders expanded slightly, but the governor Agricola incorporated into the province the last pockets of independence in Wales and Northern England.

He also led a campaign into Scotland which was recalled by Emperor Domitian. The border gradually formed along the Stanegate road in Northern England, solidified by Hadrian's Wall built in AD, despite temporary forays into Scotland.

The Romans and their culture stayed in charge for years. Traces of their presence are ubiquitous throughout England. In the wake of the breakdown of Roman rule in Britain from the middle of the fourth century, present day England was progressively settled by Germanic groups.

The Battle of Deorham was a critical in establishing Anglo-Saxon rule in The precise nature of these invasions is not fully known; there are doubts about the legitimacy of historical accounts due to a lack of archaeological finds.

Gildass ' De Excidio et Conquestu Britanniae , composed in the 6th century, states that when the Roman army departed the Isle of Britannia in the 4th century CE, the indigenous Britons were invaded by Picts , their neighbours to the north now Scotland and the Scots now Ireland.

Britons invited the Saxons to the island to repel them but after they vanquished the Scots and Picts, the Saxons turned against the Britons.

Seven kingdoms are traditionally identified as being established by these migrants. Three were clustered in the South east: Sussex , Kent and Essex.

The Midlands were dominated by the kingdoms of Mercia and East Anglia. To the north was Northumbria which unified two earlier kingdoms, Bernicia and Deira.

Other smaller kingdoms seem to have existed as well, such as Lindsey in what is now Lincolnshire, and the Hwicce in the southwest.

Eventually, the kingdoms were dominated by Northumbria and Mercia in the 7th century, Mercia in the 8th century and then Wessex in the 9th century.

Northumbria eventually extended its control north into Scotland and west into Wales. It also subdued Mercia whose first powerful King, Penda , was killed by Oswy in Northumbria's power began to wane after with the defeat and death of its king Aegfrith at the hands of the Picts.

Mercian power reached its peak under the rule of Offa , who from had influence over most of Anglo-Saxon England.

Since Offa's death in , the supremacy of Wessex was established under Egbert who extended control west into Cornwall before defeating the Mercians at the Battle of Ellendun in Four years later, he received submission and tribute from the Northumbrian king, Eanred.

Since so few contemporary sources exist, the events of the fifth and sixth centuries are difficult to ascertain. As such, the nature of the Anglo-Saxon settlements is debated by historians, archaeologists and linguists.

The traditional view, that the Anglo-Saxons drove the Romano-British inhabitants out of what is now England, was subject to reappraisal in the later twentieth century.

One suggestion is that the invaders were smaller in number, based around an elite class of male warriors that gradually acculturated the natives.

An emerging view is that the scale of the Anglo-Saxon settlement varied across England, and that as such it cannot be described by any one process in particular.

Mass migration and population shift seem to be most applicable in the core areas of settlement such as East Anglia and Lincolnshire, [29] [30] [31] [32] [33] while in more peripheral areas to the northwest, much of the native population likely remained in place as the incomers took over as elites.

Fox interprets the process by which English came to dominate this region as "a synthesis of mass-migration and elite-takeover models.

Augustine , the first Archbishop of Canterbury , took office in The last pagan Anglo-Saxon king, Penda of Mercia , died in The last pagan Jutish king, Arwald of the Isle of Wight was killed in The Anglo-Saxon mission on the continent took off in the 8th century, leading to the Christianisation of practically all of the Frankish Empire by Throughout the 7th and 8th century power fluctuated between the larger kingdoms.

Edwin of Northumbria probably held dominance over much of Britain, though Bede's Northumbrian bias should be kept in mind.

Due to succession crises, Northumbrian hegemony was not constant, and Mercia remained a very powerful kingdom, especially under Penda.

Two defeats ended Northumbrian dominance: the Battle of the Trent in against Mercia, and Nechtanesmere in against the Picts. The so-called "Mercian Supremacy" dominated the 8th century, though it was not constant.

Aethelbald and Offa , the two most powerful kings, achieved high status; indeed, Offa was considered the overlord of south Britain by Charlemagne.

His power is illustrated by the fact that he summoned the resources to build Offa's Dyke. However, a rising Wessex, and challenges from smaller kingdoms, kept Mercian power in check, and by the early 9th century the "Mercian Supremacy" was over.

This period has been described as the Heptarchy , though this term has now fallen out of academic use. Other small kingdoms were also politically important across this period: Hwicce , Magonsaete , Lindsey and Middle Anglia.

The first recorded landing of Vikings took place in in Dorsetshire , on the south-west coast. However, by then the Vikings were almost certainly well-established in Orkney and Shetland , and many other non-recorded raids probably occurred before this.

Records do show the first Viking attack on Iona taking place in The arrival of the Vikings in particular the Danish Great Heathen Army upset the political and social geography of Britain and Ireland.

In Northumbria fell to the Danes; East Anglia fell in Though Wessex managed to contain the Vikings by defeating them at Ashdown in , a second invading army landed, leaving the Saxons on a defensive footing.

Alfred was immediately confronted with the task of defending Wessex against the Danes. He spent the first five years of his reign paying the invaders off.

In , Alfred's forces were overwhelmed at Chippenham in a surprise attack. It was only now, with the independence of Wessex hanging by a thread, that Alfred emerged as a great king.

In May he led a force that defeated the Danes at Edington. The victory was so complete that the Danish leader, Guthrum , was forced to accept Christian baptism and withdraw from Mercia.

Alfred then set about strengthening the defences of Wessex, building a new navy—60 vessels strong.

Alfred's success bought Wessex and Mercia years of peace and sparked economic recovery in previously ravaged areas.

Alfred's success was sustained by his son Edward , whose decisive victories over the Danes in East Anglia in and were followed by a crushing victory at Tempsford in These military gains allowed Edward to fully incorporate Mercia into his kingdom and add East Anglia to his conquests.

Edward then set about reinforcing his northern borders against the Danish kingdom of Northumbria. Edward's rapid conquest of the English kingdoms meant Wessex received homage from those that remained, including Gwynedd in Wales and Scotland.

These conquests led to his adopting the title 'King of the English' for the first time. The dominance and independence of England was maintained by the kings that followed.

Two powerful Danish kings Harold Bluetooth and later his son Sweyn both launched devastating invasions of England. Anglo-Saxon forces were resoundingly defeated at Maldon in More Danish attacks followed, and their victories were frequent.

His solution was to pay off the Danes: for almost 20 years he paid increasingly large sums to the Danish nobles to keep them from English coasts.

These payments, known as Danegelds , crippled the English economy. Then he made a great error: in he ordered the massacre of all the Danes in England.

In response, Sweyn began a decade of devastating attacks on England. Northern England, with its sizable Danish population, sided with Sweyn.

By , London, Oxford, and Winchester had fallen to the Danes. Cnut seized the throne, crowning himself King of England.

Alfred of Wessex died in and was succeeded by his son Edward the Elder. The titles attributed to him in charters and on coins suggest a still more widespread dominance.

His expansion aroused ill-feeling among the other kingdoms of Britain, and he defeated a combined Scottish-Viking army at the Battle of Brunanburh.

However, the unification of England was not a certainty. Nevertheless, Edgar , who ruled the same expanse as Athelstan, consolidated the kingdom, which remained united thereafter.

There were renewed Scandinavian attacks on England at the end of the 10th century. Under his rule the kingdom became the centre of government for the North Sea empire which included Denmark and Norway.

Cnut was succeeded by his sons, but in the native dynasty was restored with the accession of Edward the Confessor. Edward's failure to produce an heir caused a furious conflict over the succession on his death in His struggles for power against Godwin, Earl of Wessex , the claims of Cnut's Scandinavian successors, and the ambitions of the Normans whom Edward introduced to English politics to bolster his own position caused each to vie for control of Edward's reign.

Harold Godwinson became king, probably appointed by Edward on his deathbed and endorsed by the Witan.

After marching from Yorkshire , Harold's exhausted army was defeated and Harold was killed at the Battle of Hastings on 14 October.

For five years, he faced a series of rebellions in various parts of England and a half-hearted Danish invasion, but he subdued them and established an enduring regime.

The Norman Conquest led to a profound change in the history of the English state. William ordered the compilation of the Domesday Book , a survey of the entire population and their lands and property for tax purposes, which reveals that within 20 years of the conquest the English ruling class had been almost entirely dispossessed and replaced by Norman landholders, who monopolised all senior positions in the government and the Church.

William and his nobles spoke and conducted court in Norman French , in both Normandy and England. The use of the Anglo-Norman language by the aristocracy endured for centuries and left an indelible mark in the development of modern English.

Upon being crowned, on Christmas Day , William immediately began consolidating his power. By , he faced revolts on all sides and spent four years crushing them.

He then imposed his superiority over Scotland and Wales, forcing them to recognise him as overlord.

The English Middle Ages were characterised by civil war , international war, occasional insurrection, and widespread political intrigue among the aristocratic and monarchic elite.

England was more than self-sufficient in cereals, dairy products, beef and mutton. Its international economy was based on wool trade , in which wool from the sheepwalks of northern England was exported to the textile cities of Flanders , where it was worked into cloth.

Medieval foreign policy was as much shaped by relations with the Flemish textile industry as it was by dynastic adventures in western France.

An English textile industry was established in the 15th century, providing the basis for rapid English capital accumulation.

Henry was also known as "Henry Beauclerc" because he received a formal education, unlike his older brother and heir apparent William who got practical training to be king.

Henry worked hard to reform and stabilise the country and smooth the differences between the Anglo-Saxon and Anglo-Norman societies.

The loss of his son, William Adelin , in the wreck of the White Ship in November , undermined his reforms. This problem regarding succession cast a long shadow over English history.

Henry I had required the leading barons, ecclesiastics and officials in Normandy and England, to take an oath to accept Matilda also known as Empress Maud, Henry I's daughter as his heir.

England was far less than enthusiastic to accept an outsider, and a woman, as their ruler. There is some evidence that Henry was unsure of his own hopes and the oath to make Matilda his heir.

Probably Henry hoped Matilda would have a son and step aside as Queen Mother. Upon Henry's death, the Norman and English barons ignored Matilda's claim to the throne, and thus through a series of decisions, Stephen , Henry's favourite nephew, was welcomed by many in England and Normandy as their new king.

On 22 December , Stephen was anointed king with implicit support by the church and nation. Matilda and her own son waited in France until she sparked the civil war from — known as the Anarchy.

In the autumn of , she invaded England with her illegitimate half-brother Robert of Gloucester. Her husband, Geoffroy V of Anjou , conquered Normandy but did not cross the channel to help his wife.

During this breakdown of central authority, nobles built adulterine castles i. Stephen was captured, and his government fell.

Matilda was proclaimed queen but was soon at odds with her subjects and was expelled from London. The war continued until , when Matilda returned to France.

Stephen reigned unopposed until his death in , although his hold on the throne was uneasy. As soon as he regained power, he began to demolish the adulterine castles, but kept a few castles standing, which put him at odds with his heir.

His contested reign, civil war and lawlessness broke out saw a major swing in power towards feudal barons. In trying to appease Scottish and Welsh raiders, he handed over large tracts of land.

When Stephen's son and heir apparent Eustace died in , Stephen made an agreement with Henry of Anjou who became Henry II to succeed Stephen and guarantee peace between them.

The union was retrospectively named the Angevin Empire. Henry II destroyed the remaining adulterine castles and expanded his power through various means and to different levels into Ireland, Scotland, Wales, Flanders, Nantes, Brittany, Quercy, Toulouse, Bourges and Auvergne.

The reign of Henry II represents a reversion in power from the barony to the monarchical state in England; it was also to see a similar redistribution of legislative power from the Church, again to the monarchical state.

This period also presaged a properly constituted legislation and a radical shift away from feudalism.

In his reign, new Anglo-Angevin and Anglo-Aquitanian aristocracies developed, though not to the same degree as the Anglo-Norman once did, and the Norman nobles interacted with their French peers.

Henry's successor, Richard I "the Lion Heart" also known as "The absent king" , was preoccupied with foreign wars, taking part in the Third Crusade , being captured while returning and pledging fealty to the Holy Roman Empire as part of his ransom, and defending his French territories against Philip II of France.

His successor, his younger brother John , lost much of those territories including Normandy following the disastrous Battle of Bouvines in , despite having in made the Kingdom of England a tribute-paying vassal of the Holy See , which it remained until the 14th century when the Kingdom rejected the overlordship of the Holy See and re-established its sovereignty.

From onwards, John had a constant policy of maintaining close relations with the Pope, which partially explains how he persuaded the Pope to reject the legitimacy of Magna Carta.

Over the course of his reign, a combination of higher taxes, unsuccessful wars and conflict with the Pope made King John unpopular with his barons.

In , some of the most important barons rebelled against him. He met their leaders along with their French and Scot allies at Runnymede , near London on 15 June to seal the Great Charter Magna Carta in Latin , which imposed legal limits on the king's personal powers.

But as soon as hostilities ceased, John received approval from the Pope to break his word because he had made it under duress.

John travelled around the country to oppose the rebel forces, directing, among other operations, a two-month siege of the rebel-held Rochester Castle.

John's son, Henry III , was only 9 years old when he became king — He spent much of his reign fighting the barons over Magna Carta [44] and the royal rights, and was eventually forced to call the first " parliament " in He was also unsuccessful on the Continent, where he endeavoured to re-establish English control over Normandy , Anjou , and Aquitaine.

His reign was punctuated by many rebellions and civil wars, often provoked by incompetence and mismanagement in government and Henry's perceived over-reliance on French courtiers thus restricting the influence of the English nobility.

One of these rebellions—led by a disaffected courtier, Simon de Montfort —was notable for its assembly of one of the earliest precursors to Parliament.

Henry III's policies towards Jews began with relative tolerance, but became gradually more restrictive. In the Statute of Jewry , reinforced physical segregation and demanded a previously notional requirement to wear square white badges.

Popular superstitious fears were fuelled, and Catholic theological hostility combined with Baronial abuse of loan arrangements, resulting in Simon de Montfort 's supporters targeting of Jewish communities in their revolt.

This hostility, violence and controversy was the background to the increasingly oppressive measures that followed under Edward I. The reign of Edward I reigned — was rather more successful.

Edward enacted numerous laws strengthening the powers of his government, and he summoned the first officially sanctioned Parliaments of England such as his Model Parliament.

He conquered Wales and attempted to use a succession dispute to gain control of the Kingdom of Scotland , though this developed into a costly and drawn-out military campaign.

Edward I is also known for his policies first persecuting Jews, particularly the Statute of the Jewry. This banned Jews from their previous role in making loans, and demanded that they work as merchants, farmers, craftsmen or soldiers.

This was unrealistic, and failed. His son, Edward II , proved a disaster. A weak man who preferred to engage in activities like thatching and ditch-digging [ citation needed ] rather than jousting, hunting, or the usual entertainments of kings, he spent most of his reign trying in vain to control the nobility, who in return showed continual hostility to him.

In , the English army was disastrously defeated by the Scots at the Battle of Bannockburn. Edward also showered favours on his companion Piers Gaveston , a knight of humble birth.

While it has been widely believed that Edward was a homosexual because of his closeness to Gaveston, there is no concrete evidence of this.

The king's enemies, including his cousin Thomas of Lancaster , captured and murdered Gaveston in Edward's downfall came in when his wife, Queen Isabella , travelled to her native France and, with her lover Roger Mortimer , invaded England.

Despite their tiny force, they quickly rallied support for their cause. The king fled London, and his companion since Piers Gaveston's death, Hugh Despenser , was publicly tried and executed.

Edward was captured, charged with breaking his coronation oath, deposed and imprisoned in Gloucestershire until he was murdered some time in the autumn of , presumably by agents of Isabella and Mortimer.

Millions of people in northern Europe died in the Great Famine of — At age 17, he led a successful coup against Mortimer, the de facto ruler of the country, and began his personal reign.

Edward III reigned —, restored royal authority and went on to transform England into the most efficient military power in Europe.

His reign saw vital developments in legislature and government—in particular the evolution of the English parliament—as well as the ravages of the Black Death.

After defeating, but not subjugating, the Kingdom of Scotland , he declared himself rightful heir to the French throne in , but his claim was denied due to the Salic law.

This started what would become known as the Hundred Years' War. Edward's later years were marked by international failure and domestic strife, largely as a result of his inactivity and poor health.

For many years, trouble had been brewing with Castile —a Spanish kingdom whose navy had taken to raiding English merchant ships in the Channel.

Edward won a major naval victory against a Castilian fleet off Winchelsea in Although the Castilian crossbowmen killed many of the enemy, [53] the English gradually got the better of the encounter.

In spite of Edward's success, however, Winchelsea was only a flash in a conflict that raged between the English and the Spanish for over years, [54] coming to a head with the defeat of the Spanish Armada in In , England signed an alliance with the Kingdom of Portugal , which is claimed to be the oldest alliance in the world still in force.

It was suppressed by Richard II , with the death of rebels. The Black Death , an epidemic of bubonic plague that spread all over Europe, arrived in England in and killed as much as a third to half the population.

Military conflicts during this period were usually with domestic neighbours such as the Welsh, Irish and Scots, and included the Hundred Years' War against the French and their Scottish allies.

Edward III gave land to powerful noble families, including many people of royal lineage. Because land was equivalent to power, these powerful men could try to claim the crown.

The autocratic and arrogant methods of Richard II only served to alienate the nobility more, and his forceful dispossession in by Henry IV increased the turmoil.

Henry spent much of his reign defending himself against plots, rebellions and assassination attempts. The king's success in putting down these rebellions was due partly to the military ability of his eldest son, Henry of Monmouth , [56] who later became king though the son managed to seize much effective power from his father in Henry V succeeded to the throne in He renewed hostilities with France and began a set of military campaigns which are considered a new phase of the Hundred Years' War , referred to as the Lancastrian War.

He won several notable victories over the French, including at the Battle of Agincourt. They married in Henry died of dysentery in , leaving a number of unfulfilled plans, including his plan to take over as King of France and to lead a crusade to retake Jerusalem from the Muslims.

Henry V's son, Henry VI , became king in as an infant. His reign was marked by constant turmoil due to his political weaknesses.

While he was growing up, England was ruled by the Regency government. It appeared they might succeed due to the poor political position of the son of Charles VI, who had claimed to be the rightful king as Charles VII of France.

Boudica protested. In consequence, Rome punished her and her daughters by flogging and rape. In response, the Iceni, joined by the Trinovantes , destroyed the Roman colony at Camulodunum Colchester and routed the part of the IXth Legion that was sent to relieve it.

Paulinus rode to London then called Londinium , the rebels' next target, but concluded it could not be defended.

Abandoned, it was destroyed, as was Verulamium St. Between seventy and eighty thousand people are said to have been killed in the three cities.

But Paulinus regrouped with two of the three legions still available to him, chose a battlefield, and, despite being outnumbered by more than twenty to one, defeated the rebels in the Battle of Watling Street.

Boudica died not long afterwards, by self-administered poison or by illness. There was further turmoil in 69, the " Year of the Four Emperors ".

As civil war raged in Rome, weak governors were unable to control the legions in Britain, and Venutius of the Brigantes seized his chance.

The Romans had previously defended Cartimandua against him, but this time were unable to do so. Cartimandua was evacuated, and Venutius was left in control of the north of the country.

After Vespasian secured the empire, his first two appointments as governor, Quintus Petillius Cerialis and Sextus Julius Frontinus , took on the task of subduing the Brigantes and Silures respectively.

In the following years, the Romans conquered more of the island, increasing the size of Roman Britain. Governor Gnaeus Julius Agricola , father-in-law to the historian Tacitus , conquered the Ordovices in For much of the history of Roman Britain, a large number of soldiers were garrisoned on the island.

This required that the emperor station a trusted senior man as governor of the province. As a result, many future emperors served as governors or legates in this province, including Vespasian , Pertinax , and Gordian I.

There is no historical source describing the decades that followed Agricola's recall. Even the name of his replacement is unknown.

Archaeology has shown that some Roman forts south of the Forth—Clyde isthmus were rebuilt and enlarged; others appear to have been abandoned.

Roman coins and pottery have been found circulating at native settlement sites in the Scottish Lowlands in the years before , indicating growing Romanisation.

Some of the most important sources for this era are the writing tablets from the fort at Vindolanda in Northumberland , mostly dating to 90— These tablets provide vivid evidence for the operation of a Roman fort at the edge of the Roman Empire, where officers' wives maintained polite society while merchants, hauliers and military personnel kept the fort operational and supplied.

Around there appears to have been a serious setback at the hands of the tribes of the Picts of Alba : several Roman forts were destroyed by fire, with human remains and damaged armour at Trimontium at modern Newstead , in SE Scotland indicating hostilities at least at that site.

There is also circumstantial evidence that auxiliary reinforcements were sent from Germany, and an unnamed British war of the period is mentioned on the gravestone of a tribune of Cyrene.

Trajan's Dacian Wars may have led to troop reductions in the area or even total withdrawal followed by slighting of the forts by the Picts rather than an unrecorded military defeat.

The Romans were also in the habit of destroying their own forts during an orderly withdrawal, in order to deny resources to an enemy. In either case, the frontier probably moved south to the line of the Stanegate at the Solway — Tyne isthmus around this time.

A new crisis occurred at the beginning of Hadrian 's reign : a rising in the north which was suppressed by Quintus Pompeius Falco.

When Hadrian reached Britannia on his famous tour of the Roman provinces around , he directed an extensive defensive wall, known to posterity as Hadrian's Wall , to be built close to the line of the Stanegate frontier.

This replaced the famous Legio IX Hispana , whose disappearance has been much discussed. Archaeology indicates considerable political instability in Scotland during the first half of the 2nd century, and the shifting frontier at this time should be seen in this context.

In the reign of Antoninus Pius — the Hadrianic border was briefly extended north to the Forth—Clyde isthmus, where the Antonine Wall was built around following the military reoccupation of the Scottish lowlands by a new governor, Quintus Lollius Urbicus.

The first Antonine occupation of Scotland ended as a result of a further crisis in —, when the Brigantes revolted.

With limited options to despatch reinforcements, the Romans moved their troops south, and this rising was suppressed by Governor Gnaeus Julius Verus.

Within a year the Antonine Wall was recaptured, but by or it was abandoned. The second occupation was probably connected with Antoninus's undertakings to protect the Votadini or his pride in enlarging the empire, since the retreat to the Hadrianic frontier occurred not long after his death when a more objective strategic assessment of the benefits of the Antonine Wall could be made.

The Romans did not entirely withdraw from Scotland at this time: the large fort at Newstead was maintained along with seven smaller outposts until at least Increasing numbers of hoards of buried coins in Britain at this time indicate that peace was not entirely achieved.

Sufficient Roman silver has been found in Scotland to suggest more than ordinary trade, and it is likely that the Romans were reinforcing treaty agreements by paying tribute to their implacable enemies, the Picts.

In , a large force of Sarmatian cavalry, consisting of 5, men, arrived in Britannia, probably to reinforce troops fighting unrecorded uprisings.

In , Hadrian's Wall was breached by the Picts and the commanding officer or governor was killed there in what Cassius Dio described as the most serious war of the reign of Commodus.

Ulpius Marcellus was sent as replacement governor and by he had won a new peace, only to be faced with a mutiny from his own troops.

Unhappy with Marcellus's strictness, they tried to elect a legate named Priscus as usurper governor; he refused, but Marcellus was lucky to leave the province alive.

The Roman army in Britannia continued its insubordination: they sent a delegation of 1, to Rome to demand the execution of Tigidius Perennis , a Praetorian prefect who they felt had earlier wronged them by posting lowly equites to legate ranks in Britannia.

Commodus met the party outside Rome and agreed to have Perennis killed, but this only made them feel more secure in their mutiny.

The future emperor Pertinax was sent to Britannia to quell the mutiny and was initially successful in regaining control, but a riot broke out among the troops.

Pertinax was attacked and left for dead, and asked to be recalled to Rome, where he briefly succeeded Commodus as emperor in The death of Commodus put into motion a series of events which eventually led to civil war.

Following the short reign of Pertinax, several rivals for the emperorship emerged, including Septimius Severus and Clodius Albinus.

The latter was the new governor of Britannia, and had seemingly won the natives over after their earlier rebellions; he also controlled three legions, making him a potentially significant claimant.

His sometime rival Severus promised him the title of Caesar in return for Albinus's support against Pescennius Niger in the east.

Albinus crossed to Gaul in , where the provinces were also sympathetic to him, and set up at Lugdunum. Severus arrived in February , and the ensuing battle was decisive.

Albinus came close to victory, but Severus's reinforcements won the day, and the British governor committed suicide.

Severus soon purged Albinus's sympathisers and perhaps confiscated large tracts of land in Britain as punishment. Albinus had demonstrated the major problem posed by Roman Britain.

In order to maintain security, the province required the presence of three legions; but command of these forces provided an ideal power base for ambitious rivals.

Deploying those legions elsewhere would strip the island of its garrison, leaving the province defenceless against uprisings by the native Celtic tribes and against invasion by the Picts and Scots.

The traditional view is that northern Britain descended into anarchy during Albinus's absence. Cassius Dio records that the new Governor, Virius Lupus , was obliged to buy peace from a fractious northern tribe known as the Maeatae.

The succession of militarily distinguished governors who were subsequently appointed suggests that enemies of Rome were posing a difficult challenge, and Lucius Alfenus Senecio 's report to Rome in describes barbarians "rebelling, over-running the land, taking loot and creating destruction".

Senecio requested either reinforcements or an Imperial expedition, and Severus chose the latter, despite being 62 years old.

Archaeological evidence shows that Senecio had been rebuilding the defences of Hadrian's Wall and the forts beyond it, and Severus's arrival in Britain prompted the enemy tribes to sue for peace immediately.

The emperor had not come all that way to leave without a victory, and it is likely that he wished to provide his teenage sons Caracalla and Geta with first-hand experience of controlling a hostile barbarian land.

An invasion of Caledonia led by Severus and probably numbering around 20, troops moved north in or , crossing the Wall and passing through eastern Scotland on a route similar to that used by Agricola.

Harried by punishing guerrilla raids by the northern tribes and slowed by an unforgiving terrain, Severus was unable to meet the Caledonians on a battlefield.

The emperor's forces pushed north as far as the River Tay , but little appears to have been achieved by the invasion, as peace treaties were signed with the Caledonians.

By Severus had returned to York, and the frontier had once again become Hadrian's Wall. He assumed the title Britannicus but the title meant little with regard to the unconquered north, which clearly remained outside the authority of the Empire.

Almost immediately, another northern tribe, the Maeatae , again went to war. Caracalla left with a punitive expedition , but by the following year his ailing father had died and he and his brother left the province to press their claim to the throne.

As one of his last acts, Severus tried to solve the problem of powerful and rebellious governors in Britain by dividing the province into Britannia Superior and Britannia Inferior.

This kept the potential for rebellion in check for almost a century. Historical sources provide little information on the following decades, a period known as the Long Peace.

Even so, the number of buried hoards found from this period rises, suggesting continuing unrest. A string of forts were built along the coast of southern Britain to control piracy; and over the following hundred years they increased in number, becoming the Saxon Shore Forts.

During the middle of the 3rd century, the Roman Empire was convulsed by barbarian invasions, rebellions and new imperial pretenders.

Britannia apparently avoided these troubles, but increasing inflation had its economic effect. In a so-called Gallic Empire was established when Postumus rebelled against Gallienus.

Britannia was part of this until when Aurelian reunited the empire. Around the year , a half- British officer named Bonosus was in command of the Roman's Rhenish fleet when the Germans managed to burn it at anchor.

To avoid punishment, he proclaimed himself emperor at Colonia Agrippina Cologne but was crushed by Marcus Aurelius Probus. Soon afterwards, an unnamed governor of one of the British provinces also attempted an uprising.

Probus put it down by sending irregular troops of Vandals and Burgundians across the Channel.

The Carausian Revolt led to a short-lived Britannic Empire from to Carausius was a Menapian naval commander of the Britannic fleet ; he revolted upon learning of a death sentence ordered by the emperor Maximian on charges of having abetted Frankish and Saxon pirates and having embezzled recovered treasure.

He consolidated control over all the provinces of Britain and some of northern Gaul while Maximian dealt with other uprisings.

An invasion in failed to unseat him and an uneasy peace ensued, with Carausius issuing coins and inviting official recognition. In , the junior emperor Constantius Chlorus launched a second offensive, besieging the rebel port of Gesoriacum Boulogne-sur-Mer by land and sea.

After it fell, Constantius attacked Carausius's other Gallic holdings and Frankish allies and Carausius was usurped by his treasurer, Allectus.

Julius Asclepiodotus landed an invasion fleet near Southampton and defeated Allectus in a land battle. As part of Diocletian's reforms , the provinces of Roman Britain were organized as a diocese subordinate to a praetorian prefect resident with an emperor and from a prefect based at Augusta Treverorum Trier , Julius Bassus, prefect to Constantine's son Crispus.

Prior to this appointment, two was the canonical number of prefects not counting those of usurpers. The territorial prefectures first appear circa Four are listed in It is certain that the diocesan vicar was based at Londinium as the principal city of the diocese, as it had been for years; [ citation needed ] that Londinium and Eboracum continued as provincial capitals; and that the territory was divided up into smaller provinces for administrative efficiency and presence as the governors, heretofore mainly judicial and administrative officials, assumed more financial duties as the procurators of the Treasury ministry were slowly phased out in the first three decades of the 4th century.

The governors were stripped of military command a process completed by , which was handed over to duces. The tasks of the vicar were to control and coordinate the activities of governors; monitor but not interfere with the daily functioning of the Treasury and Crown Estates, which had their own administrative infrastructure; and act as the regional quartermaster-general of the armed forces.

In short, as the sole civilian official with superior authority, he had general oversight of the administration, as well as direct control, while not absolute, over governors who were part of the prefecture; the other two fiscal departments were not.

The early-4th-century Verona List , the late-4th-century work of Sextus Rufus , and the early-5th-century List of Offices and work of Polemius Silvius all list four provinces by some variation of the names Britannia I , Britannia II , Maxima Caesariensis , and Flavia Caesariensis ; all of these seem to have initially been directed by a governor praeses of equestrian rank.

The 5th-century sources list a fifth province named Valentia and give its governor and Maxima's a consular rank.

Ammianus considered it a re-creation of a formerly lost province, [48] leading some to think there had been an earlier fifth province under another name may be the enigmatic "Vespasiana"?

Reconstructions of the provinces and provincial capitals during this period partially rely on ecclesiastical records.

On the assumption that the early bishoprics mimicked the imperial hierarchy, scholars use the list of bishops for the Council of Arles.

Unfortunately, the list is patently corrupt: the British delegation is given as including a Bishop "Eborius" of Eboracum and two bishops "from Londinium " one de civitate Londinensi and the other de civitate colonia Londinensium.

II Caerleon. A common modern reconstruction places the consular province of Maxima at Londinium, on the basis of its status as the seat of the diocesan vicar; places Prima in the west according to Gerald's traditional account but moves its capital to Corinium of the Dobunni Cirencester on the basis of an artifact recovered there referring to Lucius Septimius, a provincial rector ; places Flavia north of Maxima, with its capital placed at Lindum Colonia Lincoln to match one emendation of the bishops list from Arles; [66] and places Secunda in the north with its capital at Eboracum York.

Constantius Chlorus returned in , despite his poor health, aiming to invade northern Britain, with the provincial defences having been rebuilt in the preceding years.

Little is known of his campaigns with scant archaeological evidence, but fragmentary historical sources suggest he reached the far north of Britain and won a major battle in early summer before returning south.

He died in York in July with his son Constantine I at his side. Constantine then successfully used Britain as the starting point of his march to the imperial throne, unlike the earlier usurper, Albinus.

In the middle of the century, for a few years the province was loyal to the usurper Magnentius , who succeeded Constans following the latter's death.

The investigation deteriorated into a witch-hunt , which forced the vicarius Flavius Martinus to intervene. When Paulus retaliated by accusing Martinus of treason, the vicarius attacked Paulus with a sword, with the aim of assassinating him, but in the end he committed suicide.

As the 4th century progressed, there were increasing attacks from the Saxons in the east and the Scoti Irish in the west.

A series of forts was already being built, starting around , to defend the coasts, but these preparations were not enough when a general assault of Saxons, Scoti and Attacotti , combined with apparent dissension in the garrison on Hadrian's Wall, left Roman Britain prostrate in This crisis, sometimes called the Barbarian Conspiracy or the Great Conspiracy , was settled by Count Theodosius with a string of military and civil reforms.

Another imperial usurper, Magnus Maximus , raised the standard of revolt at Segontium Caernarfon in north Wales in , and crossed the English Channel.

Maximus held much of the western empire, and fought a successful campaign against the Picts and Scots around His continental exploits required troops from Britain, and it appears that forts at Chester and elsewhere were abandoned in this period, triggering raids and settlement in north Wales by the Irish.

His rule was ended in , but not all the British troops may have returned: the Empire's military resources were stretched to the limit along the Rhine and Danube.

Around there were more barbarian incursions into Britain. Stilicho led a punitive expedition. It seems peace was restored by , and it is likely that no further garrisoning was ordered; by more troops were withdrawn, to assist in the war against Alaric I.

The traditional view of historians, informed by the work of Michael Rostovtzeff , was of a widespread economic decline at the beginning of the 5th century.

Consistent archaeological evidence has told another story, and the accepted view is undergoing re-evaluation.

Some features are agreed: more opulent but fewer urban houses, an end to new public building and some abandonment of existing ones, with the exception of defensive structures, and the widespread formation of " dark earth " deposits indicating increased horticulture within urban precincts.

Many buildings changed use but were not destroyed. There were growing barbarian attacks, but these were focused on vulnerable rural settlements rather than towns.

Some villas such as Great Casterton in Rutland and Hucclecote in Gloucestershire had new mosaic floors laid around this time, suggesting that economic problems may have been limited and patchy.

Many suffered some decay before being abandoned in the 5th century; the story of Saint Patrick indicates that villas were still occupied until at least Exceptionally, new buildings were still going up in this period in Verulamium and Cirencester.

Some urban centres, for example Canterbury , Cirencester , Wroxeter , Winchester and Gloucester , remained active during the 5th and 6th centuries, surrounded by large farming estates.

Urban life had generally grown less intense by the fourth quarter of the 4th century, and coins minted between and are very rare, indicating a likely combination of economic decline, diminishing numbers of troops, problems with the payment of soldiers and officials or with unstable conditions during the usurpation of Magnus Maximus — Coinage circulation increased during the s, but never attained the levels of earlier decades.

Copper coins are very rare after , though minted silver and gold coins from hoards indicate they were still present in the province even if they were not being spent.

By there were very few new Roman coins going into circulation, and by it is likely that coinage as a medium of exchange had been abandoned.

Mass-produced wheel thrown pottery ended at approximately the same time; the rich continued to use metal and glass vessels, while the poor made do with humble "grey ware" or resorted to leather or wooden containers.

Towards the end of the 4th century Britain came under increasing pressure from barbarian attacks, and there were not enough troops to mount an effective defence.

After elevating two disappointing usurpers , the army chose a soldier, Constantine III , to become emperor in He crossed to Gaul but was defeated by Honorius ; it is unclear how many troops remained or ever returned, or whether a commander-in-chief in Britain was ever reappointed.

A Saxon incursion in was apparently repelled by the Britons , and in Zosimus records that the natives expelled the Roman civilian administration.

Zosimus may be referring to the Bacaudic rebellion of the Breton inhabitants of Armorica since he describes how, in the aftermath of the revolt, all of Armorica and the rest of Gaul followed the example of the Brettaniai.

A letter from Emperor Honorius in has traditionally been seen as rejecting a British appeal for help, but it may have been addressed to Bruttium or Bologna.

Historian Stuart Laycock has investigated this process and emphasised elements of continuity from the British tribes in the pre-Roman and Roman periods, through to the native post-Roman kingdoms.

In British tradition, pagan Saxons were invited by Vortigern to assist in fighting the Picts and Irish. Germanic migration into Roman Britannia may have begun much earlier.

There is recorded evidence, for example, of Germanic auxiliaries supporting the legions in Britain in the 1st and 2nd centuries. The new arrivals rebelled, plunging the country into a series of wars that eventually led to the Saxon occupation of Lowland Britain by Around this time, many Britons fled to Brittany hence its name , Galicia and probably Ireland.

A significant date in sub-Roman Britain is the Groans of the Britons , an unanswered appeal to Aetius , leading general of the western Empire, for assistance against Saxon invasion in Another is the Battle of Deorham in , after which the significant cities of Bath , Cirencester and Gloucester fell and the Saxons reached the western sea.

Most scholars reject the historicity of the later legends of King Arthur , which seem to be set in this period, but some such as John Morris think there may be some truth to them.

During the Roman period Britain's continental trade was principally directed across the Southern North Sea and Eastern Channel , focusing on the narrow Strait of Dover , with more limited links via the Atlantic seaways.

Exports to Britain included: coin ; pottery , particularly red-gloss terra sigillata samian ware from southern, central and eastern Gaul , as well as various other wares from Gaul and the Rhine provinces; olive oil from southern Spain in amphorae ; wine from Gaul in amphorae and barrels; salted fish products from the western Mediterranean and Brittany in barrels and amphorae; preserved olives from southern Spain in amphorae ; lava quern-stones from Mayen on the middle Rhine; glass; and some agricultural products.

Other exports probably included agricultural products, oysters and salt, whilst large quantities of coin would have been re-exported back to the continent as well.

These products moved as a result of private trade and also through payments and contracts established by the Roman state to support its military forces and officials on the island, as well as through state taxation and extraction of resources.

It has been argued that Roman Britain's continental trade peaked in the late 1st century AD and thereafter declined as a result of an increasing reliance on local products by the population of Britain, caused by economic development on the island and by the Roman state's desire to save money by shifting away from expensive long-distance imports.

From the mid-3rd century onwards, Britain no longer received such a wide range and extensive quantity of foreign imports as it did during the earlier part of the Roman period; vast quantities of coin from continental mints reached the island, whilst there is historical evidence for the export of large amounts of British grain to the continent during the mid-4th century.

Mineral extraction sites such as the Dolaucothi gold mine was probably first worked by the Roman army from c.

The mine developed as a series of opencast workings, mainly by the use of hydraulic mining methods. They are described by Pliny the Elder in his Natural History in great detail.

Essentially, water supplied by aqueducts was used to prospect for ore veins by stripping away soil to reveal the bedrock.

If veins were present, they were attacked using fire-setting and the ore removed for crushing and comminution. The dust was washed in a small stream of water and the heavy gold dust and gold nuggets collected in riffles.

The diagram at right shows how Dolaucothi developed from c. When opencast work was no longer feasible, tunnels were driven to follow the veins.

The evidence from the site shows advanced technology probably under the control of army engineers.

The Wealden ironworking zone, the lead and silver mines of the Mendip Hills and the tin mines of Cornwall seem to have been private enterprises leased from the government for a fee.

Mining had long been practised in Britain see Grimes Graves , but the Romans introduced new technical knowledge and large-scale industrial production to revolutionise the industry.

It included hydraulic mining to prospect for ore by removing overburden as well as work alluvial deposits.

The water needed for such large-scale operations was supplied by one or more aqueducts , those surviving at Dolaucothi being especially impressive.

Many prospecting areas were in dangerous, upland country, and, although mineral exploitation was presumably one of the main reasons for the Roman invasion, it had to wait until these areas were subdued.

Local pottery rarely attained the standards of the Gaulish industries; the Castor ware of the Nene Valley was able to withstand comparison with the imports.

Most native pottery was unsophisticated and intended only for local markets. By the 3rd century, Britain's economy was diverse and well established, with commerce extending into the non-Romanised north.

The design of Hadrian's Wall especially catered to the need for customs inspections of merchants' goods. Under the Roman Empire, administration of peaceful provinces was ultimately the remit of the Senate , but those, like Britain, that required permanent garrisons, were placed under the Emperor's control.

In practice imperial provinces were run by resident governors who were members of the Senate and had held the consulship.

These men were carefully selected, often having strong records of military success and administrative ability.

In Britain, a governor's role was primarily military, but numerous other tasks were also his responsibility, such as maintaining diplomatic relations with local client kings, building roads, ensuring the public courier system functioned, supervising the civitates and acting as a judge in important legal cases.

When not campaigning, he would travel the province hearing complaints and recruiting new troops. To assist him in legal matters he had an adviser, the legatus juridicus , and those in Britain appear to have been distinguished lawyers perhaps because of the challenge of incorporating tribes into the imperial system and devising a workable method of taxing them.

Financial administration was dealt with by a procurator with junior posts for each tax-raising power.

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